According to COUNTRYAAH, Tonga is a kingdom in the southern Pacific Ocean. The population is 98% Polynesians. The kingdom includes the Tonga Islands (Friendship Islands), an archipelago of around 150 volcanic and coral islands. The main products are copra, bananas, vanilla and, increasingly, coffee. Tourism is of great importance.
History: The Tonga Islands were discovered by the Dutch in 1616. Tonga was a British protectorate from 1900 to 1970 and has been independent since then.
Population and Religion
Most of the Polynesians live in Tonga (since around 1400 BC; Lapita culture, Oceania), along with a few Europeans and Chinese. Only 36 islands are permanently inhabited. About two out of three residents live on the main island of Tongatapu, about 25% in the capital Nuku’alofa alone. On the other islands, people mostly live in small village communities in which numerous customs of the traditional way of life have been preserved. A handcrafted specialty is the bast fabric (tapa) decorated with geometric patterns.
The social conditions are still largely shaped by the royal family and the aristocratic class. The land has been the property of the crown since 1875, which mostly gives it to the nobility as a fiefdom with the stipulation that small parcels of land are leased to the individual citizens. Because these leases are inherited and there is not enough land, many young Tongan citizens are leaving their island homes and looking for work abroad, many emigrating to New Zealand, Australia, American Samoa and the USA.
Social: The social services are considered to be relatively well developed. In 2010 there were 2.6 hospital beds and 0.6 doctors for every 1,000 residents.
The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. A good 98% of the island’s residents are Christians or followers of special religious communities with biblical references (Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses). The royal family and around 36% of the population belong to the Methodist »Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga«, of which the titular head is the king. About 18% of the population are Mormons, about 15% profess to the Catholic Church (exemtes Diocese of Tonga, seat: Nuku’alofa), about 12% to the “Free Church of Tonga” and about 7% to the “Church of Tonga”. The religious minorities include Pentecostals, Adventists, Anglicans, Baha’is, Hindus and Buddhists.
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Temperatures, rainfall in Nuku’alofa (Tonga)
|Daytime temperature||29 ° C||29 ° C||29 ° C||28 ° C||26 ° C||25 ° C||25 ° C||24 ° C||25 ° C||26 ° C||27 ° C||28 ° C|
|Night temperature||22 ° C||23 ° C||23 ° C||22 ° C||20 ° C||19 ° C||18 ° C||18 ° C||18 ° C||19 ° C||21 ° C||21 ° C|
|Water temperature||27 ° C||27 ° C||27 ° C||27 ° C||26 ° C||24 ° C||24 ° C||23 ° C||23 ° C||24 ° C||24 ° C||25 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||201||220||227||150||113||92||106||113||113||113||109||130|
The annual average temperature in Nuku’alofa is 23.6 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is February (26 ° C), coldest month of August, with mean values of 21.2 ° C. The maximum water temperature in Nuku’alofa is 27 ° C. Comfortable bathing is possible at these temperatures. All months have a water temperature of at least 21 ° C and are therefore suitable for a beach holiday.
The annual precipitation is 1687 mm on 125 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. The months of January, February and March are considered the rainy season, as more than 175 mm of precipitation can be expected per month. Overall, about 648 mm of precipitation can be expected in the rainy season. You cannot expect snow in any month in Nuku’alofa.