According to COUNTRYAAH, Mongolia is a country in Central Asia, the only neighboring countries are Russia in the north and the People’s Republic of China in the south.
Mongolia has an area of 1,564,116 km², making it the second largest landlocked country in the world after Kazakhstan. The vast, rather barren steppes and semi-deserts are home to only around three million inhabitants, making Mongolia one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.
The capital of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar with around 1.35 million inhabitants, almost half of the country’s population.
Mongolia is not to be confused with the autonomous region of “Inner Mongolia” in the north of the People’s Republic of China.
- Abbreviation Finder: Check to see national geography, brief history, society description, domestic politics, economy overview, and a list of widely used acronyms about Mongolia.
Climate in Mongolia
The climate in Mongolia is an extremely continental one. This is due to the great distance between the Central Asian highlands and the oceans, which have a balancing effect on the climate. A strongly continental climate is characterized by long, arctic cold and dry winters. The summers, however, can sometimes get very hot.
Otherwise the climate in summer is mostly humid and warm. It is quite windy in Mongolia all year round. Spring and autumn only last a few weeks; there are strong temperature fluctuations between day and night values of up to 30 ° C. In January the average temperature is -15 ° C in the south and -35 ° C in the north.
In July, the average temperature in the north is 10 ° C and in the south 22 ° C. Extreme temperatures of below -40 ° C can occur in the basins and in the Gobi desert. Snow can be found in these areas until April. Lakes can be frozen over until June. On the other hand, the Gobi desert has high temperatures of up to 45 ° C in summer.
The capital Ulan Bator is considered the coldest capital on earth in winter. The daily average temperatures from October to April are below the freezing limit, there is significant rainfall only between June and mid- September in summer. Despite the cool temperatures, up to 260 sunny days are counted per year.
When to go to Mongolia
The cold, long winter makes a trip to Mongolia a real adventure experience for die-hard people, as the sometimes hostile conditions bring several months of permafrost with them. The best travel time for Mongolia is therefore from May to September. The temperatures are now much more pleasant, the landscape is green and the rainfall is limited despite the “small rainy season”.
So-called dust storms can still occur in May, and during June to August, it get particularly warm. In addition, the Naadam national festival takes place in July and offers a very intensive insight into the colorful culture of the Mongols. September is the best time to visit the Gobi Desert, as the temperatures in July and August can get unbearably hot.
Optimal travel time for the regions
In the following overview you can see the best travel time depending on the region (Mongolia).
|Place||Best travel time|
|Ulan Bator||June, July, August and September|
|Altai||June, July and August|
|Tschoibalsan||May, June, July, August and September|
Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine in Ulan Bator (Mongolia)
|Daytime temperature||-16 ° C||-11 ° C||-3 ° C||7 ° C||15 ° C||20 ° C||22 ° C||20 ° C||15 ° C||6 ° C||-6 ° C||-14 ° C|
|Night temperature||-25 ° C||-23 ° C||-14 ° C||-5 ° C||3 ° C||9 ° C||12 ° C||10 ° C||3 ° C||-5 ° C||-16 ° C||-23 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||2||2||2||8||15||51||74||61||30||7||4||2|
|Hours of sunshine||6||7||9||9||10||9||8||8||8||7||6||5|
The annual average temperature in Ulaanbaatar is -1.8 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (16.5 ° C), coldest month of January with averages of -23.1 ° C.
The annual precipitation is 258 mm. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. During the months of April, May, September and October snowfall is possible.
As our climate table shows, May is the sunniest month with an average of 9.6 hours of sunshine per day. The average annual sun shines 7.6 hours per day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following larger towns are nearby and have a similar climate: Ulaanbaatar.
Highlights and attractions
The only modern city in the country is Ulan Bator, the very historic capital of Mongolia. In any case, you should take a tour of the impressive Gobi Desert, which is more diverse than any other desert landscape in the world. If you want to experience a breathtaking view over Mongolia, you should consider climbing Mount Khuiten.
Many Mongolia round trips also have the fascinating Khuvsgul Lake, the Chorgo-Terchiin-Tsagaan-Nuur National Park including a crater hike, a visit to the provincial capital Tsetserleg and the monastery of Erdene Dsuu in the program. Nature lovers will really enjoy the wondrous dinosaur excavation site at the Flaming Cliffs and in the Saxaul Forest.