According to COUNTRYAAH, Luxembourg is a Western European state (2,586 km²). Capital: Luxembourg. Administrative division: cantons (12). Population: 613,894 (2019 estimate). Language: Luxembourgish (official), French, German. Religion: Catholics 68.7%, Protestants 1.8%, Muslims 2%, non-religious 24.9%, Orthodox 1.9%, others 0.7%. Monetary unit: euro (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.956 (9th place). Borders: Belgium (N and W), Germany (E), France(S).. Member of: Benelux, Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OCDE, UN, OSCE, EU, OAS and WTO observer.
According to the Constitution of October 17, 1868, amended several times, Luxembourg is a hereditary constitutional monarchy. Head of state is the Grand Duke (or Grand Duchess) of the House of Nassau. The executive power is formally a prerogative of the Grand Duke who also appoints the members of the government, but in practice is entrusted to a Council of Ministers is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies. The latter, whose 60 members are elected by universal and direct suffrage for 5 years, has legislative power. The advisory body is instead the Council of State, appointed by the Grand Ducal. The judicial system includes a Supreme Court and an Administrative Court, whose judges are appointed for life by the sovereign. From an administrative point of view, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is divided into twelve cantons united in three districts. The country’s defense system refers to an army of volunteers and a gendarmerie. The history of education in Luxembourg begins with the constitution of the state. Primary school, free and compulsory from 6 to 15 years of age, already includes the study of French and German from the second year. Secondary education takes place in high schools, institutions that allow access to higher education, or in vocational schools.
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The settlement of man in Luxembourg is attested since the Neolithic; later the country underwent the influences of the Celtic population of the Treveri, decisively entering history with the Romans who passed some of their great arteries that from the Rhine reached Gaul. However, the population of Luxembourg remained rather sparse for a long time; at the end of the last century Luxembourg had just over 200,000 residents, but the birth of the large iron and steel industry and the general boom of the economy were accompanied by a notable demographic development (in 1930 there were already 300,000 residents). From a demographic point of view, however, Luxembourg is essentially characterized by the high percentage of foreigners who reside there (especially Portuguese, French, Italians and Belgians). They represent more than a third of the total population, but it is expected that in the future they may exceed 50%. The underlying reasons that explain this situation are not to be found only in the influx of immigrants, but they are also recognizable in the differential between the growth rate of the population of Luxembourgish origin, which stands at very low values, and that of foreigners: between 1990 and 1995 the foreign population grew by 17% while that of Luxembourg only by 1%. The country has a fairly good average density (237.39 residents / km²) and an urbanization rate of 90.7%, with strong imbalances in the demographic distribution, as the population is concentrated mainly in the central-southern region. The birth of the first real urban centers is also linked to industrialization. Luxembourg, the capital, which hosts approx. one fifth of the population is built on a fortified rock platform at the confluence of the Pétrusse river with the Alzette. Important industrial, financial and political city, it is the seat of important international organizations: it hosts the headquarters of the Court of Justice of the European Communities and the European Investment Bank. They are large industrial centers, linked to mining, Esch-sur-Alzette, Differdange, Dudelange and Pétange, all in southwestern Luxembourg.
Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine
|Daytime temperature||3 ° C||5 ° C||9 ° C||13 ° C||18 ° C||21 ° C||23 ° C||23 ° C||18 ° C||13 ° C||7 ° C||4 ° C|
|Night temperature||-2 ° C||-1 ° C||2 ° C||4 ° C||8 ° C||11 ° C||13 ° C||13 ° C||10 ° C||6 ° C||2 ° C||-1 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||77||63||69||58||79||80||71||75||76||87||76||87|
|Hours of sunshine||2||3||4||6||7||8||8||7||5||3||2||1|
The average annual temperature is 9.3 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (18.2 ° C), coldest month of January with mean values of 0.8 ° C.
The annual precipitation is 896 mm on 184 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. In the months of January, February, March, April, November and December snowfall is possible.
As our climate table shows, July is the sunniest month with an average of 8.1 hours of sunshine per day. On average over the year the sun shines 4.7 hours per day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following larger towns are nearby and have a similar climate: Trier, Saarbrücken and Metz.