According to COUNTRYAAH, Estonia is a State of Baltic Europe (45,227 km²). Capital: Tallinn. Administrative division: provinces (15). Population: 1,315,819 (2014 estimate). Language: Estonian (official), Russian. Religion: Protestants 14.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, non-religious / atheists 6.1%, Catholics 0.5%, others 66%. Monetary unit: euro (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.840 (33rd place). Borders: Russian Federation (E), Latvia (S), Baltic Sea (NW). Member of: Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, UN, OSCE, EU and WTO.
According to the Constitution of June 1992, Estonia is a parliamentary republic. The 101 members of Parliament (Riigikogu) are elected with the proportional system and remain in office for 4 years, while the term of office of the President of the Republic lasts for 5 years. The executive power is exercised by the government, which says their findings to Parliament. The death penalty was abolished in 1998. The defense consists of four bodies: Army, Navy, Air Force plus a national militia; military service is mandatory. Education is compulsory from 7 to 16 years old. Illiteracy affects 0.2% of the population.
Estonia, with a density of just 30 residents per km², it is the least densely populated of the Baltic Republics and annual growth has registered negative values since the 1990s. Falling below one million units immediately after the Second World War, the country has seen, since the 1960s, a massive immigration of Russians (wanted by the Kremlin leaders in view of a more rapid integration of the former Republic into the Soviet Union) which has profoundly changed the ethnic structure of the country: the Russians in fact make up about 25.6%. of the population against 68.7% of Estonians. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Finns follow, as well as various other minorities. Since 1992, Parliament has tried to propose laws limiting the granting of Estonian citizenship by right of birth, but protests from the Russian community and OECD intervention have always prevented these measures from coming into force. However, ethnic minorities suffer severe discrimination within the country (for example, they collect most of the unemployed population). The majority of the population is concentrated in urban areas. In particular, about a third of the residents live in Tallinn. Among other cities, Tartu is important for the manufacturing industry (and second city by population), Pärnu is the largest seaside tourist center.
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Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine in Talinn (Estonia)
|Daytime temperature||-3 ° C||-3 ° C||0 ° C||7 ° C||13 ° C||18 ° C||21 ° C||20 ° C||15 ° C||9 ° C||3 ° C||-1 ° C|
|Night temperature||-9 ° C||-9 ° C||-6 ° C||-0 ° C||5 ° C||10 ° C||13 ° C||12 ° C||8 ° C||4 ° C||-1 ° C||-5 ° C|
|Water temperature||1 ° C||1 ° C||1 ° C||2 ° C||5 ° C||11 ° C||15 ° C||16 ° C||13 ° C||9 ° C||6 ° C||3 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||43||28||28||34||34||51||77||83||81||63||66||53|
|Hours of sunshine||1||2||4||6||9||10||9||7||5||3||1||1|
The annual average temperature in Tallinn is 5.1 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (16.3 ° C), coldest month of February with mean values of -5.6 ° C. The maximum water temperature in Tallinn is 16 ° C. That is hardly suitable for swimming.
The annual precipitation is 641 mm on 123 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. Snow is possible in all but June, July, August and September.
As our climate table shows, June is the sunniest month with an average of 10.1 hours of sunshine per day. On average over the year, the sun shines 4.8 hours per day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following major towns are nearby and have a similar climate: Tallinn.