According to COUNTRYAAH, Turkey is a State of south-western Asia and, in a small portion (3%) of south-eastern Europe (785,347 km²). Capital: Ankara. Administrative division: provinces (73). Population: 83,154,997 (2019 estimate).. Language: Turkish (official) with minorities of Arabic, Armenian, Kurdish, Greek. Religion: Muslims 97.5%, others 0.5%, non-religious / atheists 2%. Since 1928 (the year in which the Latin characters were also officially adopted in place of the Arabic ones) Islamism it is no longer the state religion. Currency unit: Turkish lira (100 kurus). Human Development Index: 0.807 (59th place). Borders: Black Sea (N), Mediterranean (SW), Aegean Sea (W): for the Asian part (Asia Minor): Republic of Armenia (E), Georgia and Iran (NE), Iraq and Syria (SE); for the European part: Greece (W), Bulgaria (N). Member of: Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OCDE, OCI, UN, OECD and WTO.
Since 29 October 1923, as one of countries with T according to COUNTRYAAH, Turkey has been a unitary parliamentary republic. An army coup in 1960 led to the dismissal of Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and the adoption of a new Constitution (1961). With a further coup in September 1980 the Constitution was repealed and a new Constitutional Charter introduced, modified, then with the referendum of 2010 (reduction of military powers over the government, increase of the judges of the Constitutional Court and of the Supreme Council, introduction of the law strike for public employees and strengthening of privacy regulations.); furthermore, the bicameral Grand National Assembly, which had the legislative function, was replaced by the National Security Council. In October 1981, a Consultative Assembly was formed to draft a new Constitution and to prepare the way for a return to parliamentary regime. The draft Constitution was approved by the Consultative Assembly in September 1982 and subsequently by referendum in November of the same year. It provides for a unicameral legislative body, the National Assembly, made up of 450 deputies elected for 5 years, which is responsible for electing the president of the republic. The head of state has a seven-year term; he appoints the prime minister who, together with the Council of Ministers, is responsible for exercising executive power. According to the amendments to the Constitution approved in 2017, the country is a presidential republic: the President, elected by direct suffrage for a 5-year term, leads the government and has ample autonomy; the National Assembly is made up of 600 deputies elected for a 5-year term.
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Optimal travel time for the regions
In the following overview you can see the best travel time depending on the region (Turkey).
|Place||Best travel time|
|Istanbul||all except January, February, March and December|
|Ankara||all except January, February, March and December|
|Antalya||May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Van||April, May, June, July, August and September|
|Marmaris||May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Kusadasi||June, July, August and September|
|Belek||May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Alacati||June, July, August and September|
|Bodrum||May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Goreme||May, June, July, August and September|
|Side||May, June, July, August, September and October|
Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine in Istanbul (Turkey)
|Daytime temperature||9 ° C||9 ° C||12 ° C||17 ° C||22 ° C||26 ° C||28 ° C||28 ° C||25 ° C||20 ° C||15 ° C||11 ° C|
|Night temperature||3 ° C||3 ° C||4 ° C||8 ° C||12 ° C||16 ° C||19 ° C||19 ° C||16 ° C||12 ° C||9 ° C||5 ° C|
|Water temperature||8 ° C||8 ° C||8 ° C||11 ° C||15 ° C||20 ° C||22 ° C||23 ° C||21 ° C||19 ° C||15 ° C||11 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||99||67||62||49||31||21st||19||26||41||71||89||122|
|Hours of sunshine||3||4||5||6||9||11||12||11||8||6||4||3|
The annual average temperature in Istanbul is 14.1 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (23.2 ° C), coldest month of January with mean values of 5.6 ° C. The maximum water temperature in Istanbul is 23 ° C. Comfortable bathing is possible at these temperatures. The months of June, July, August, September and October have a water temperature of at least 17 ° C. Bathing is then possible to a limited extent. The months of July, August and September have a water temperature of at least 21 ° C and are therefore suitable for a beach holiday.
The annual precipitation is 697 mm on 84 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. In the months of January, February and March snowfall is possible.
As our climate table shows, July is the sunniest month with an average of 11.6 hours of sunshine per day. In the annual mean, the sun shines an average of 6.7 hours per day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following larger towns are nearby and have a similar climate: Umraniye, Maltepe, Gebze and Çayırova.