According to COUNTRYAAH, Kyrgyzstan is a State of Central Asia (199,945 km²). Capital: Bishkek. Administrative division: provinces (8). Population: 5,262,300 (2008 estimate). Language: Kyrgyz and Russian (official). Religion: Sunni Muslims 70%, non-religious / atheists 24.5%, Orthodox 5.5%. Monetary unit: som (100 tyiyn). Human Development Index: 0.694 (122nd place). Borders: Kazahstan (N), People’s Republic of China (E and SE), Tajikistan (S) and Uzbekistan (W). Member of: CSI, EBRD, OCI, OCS, UN, OSCE and WTO.
Former federated republic belonging to the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan became an independent state in 1991, becoming part of the CIS after the dissolution of the USSR. (Commonwealth of Independent States). The 1993 Constitution, which identified the form of government in a semi-presidential republic, was modified with the referendum of 22 October 1994 and again amended in 1996, 2003 and 2006. On the basis of the text currently in force, the President of the Republic, who enjoys of wide powers, he is head of the Government and the State and is elected by universal suffrage for 5 years, like the members of Parliament. In exercising executive power, he is assisted by a Council of Ministers, appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Legislative power is exercised instead by a bicameral Parliament (Jogorku Kenesh or Supreme Council) formed by a Legislative Assembly and a People’s Assembly. Justice is administered by the Supreme Court, by the Constitutional Court (whose members are appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president), by the High Court of Arbitration and by the Local Courts. The judicial system in use is based on elements of French and Russian law. The defense of the state includes the army, air force, and a paramilitary formation (the National Guard). Military service is mandatory. As regards the school system, education is compulsory and free for nine years: it includes four years of primary school, from 7 to 10 years of age, and 5 years of lower secondary school, from 11 to 15 years of age.. The upper secondary school lasts for 2 years, while the secondary schools of specialization last from 2 to 4 years. University education has been given in the city of Bishkek since 1993; Bishkek Humanities University, Jalal-Abad State University; Kyrgyz State University of Construction, as well as some foreign universities such as Kyrgyz-Russian SlavicUniversity and Kýrgýzistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi. The illiteracy rate in the country is decidedly low (0.7%), in line with almost all the former Soviet republics, traditionally attentive to the education system.
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In Kyrgyzstan, as one of countries with K according to COUNTRYAAH, there is an extremely continental and largely dry climate with freezing cold winters and dry, hot summers.
In the south of the country, temperatures of 45 ° C are measured in summer, while in winter in the north the thermometer can drop to -18 ° C. The temperature differences between day and night and between summer and winter are considerable. At lower altitudes, the mean temperatures in July are between 20 and 27 ° C and in January between -2 and -8 ° C.
In the high mountain areas, on the other hand, it is 10 to 12 ° C in July and -20 to -27 ° C in January. The climate here is sub- polar.
Balanced climatic conditions can be found around Lake Issyk-Kul. The lake, which is fed by hot springs, ensures a mild and moderate climate in its surroundings and does not freeze over even in the cold winter temperatures.
It rains most often in early and late summer. With an average rainfall of 200 to 300 mm per year, most parts of the country are very dry. The amount of rain is distributed very differently from region to region. On the west bank of Lake Issyk-Kul it is only 100 mm, 250-400 mm in the central valleys and basins, 300 mm on the high plateaus of the Tian Shan and up to 1,000 mm on the western and northern mountain slopes of the high mountain ranges. The harsh winter months bring a lot of snow and ice in the higher elevations.
Best travel time for Kyrgyzstan
Spring and autumn are best for visiting the lower elevations of Kyrgyzstan. The months of April and May ensure a blooming season across the country. In September and October, however, is harvest time, during which the markets are filled with fresh fruit and vegetables and the forests are colored in autumn. At both times the temperatures are pleasant in contrast to the hot summers and cold winters.
The months of July and August are best suited for hiking and trekking tours in the high mountains. The average temperatures are then around 20 to 25 ° C and even above 3,000 m, mostly up to 15 ° C.
in the winter snowfalls make many mountain regions inaccessible. Then it is bitterly cold in the lowlands. However, if you go to the want to go to Kyrgyzstan skiing, you should come during the long and snowy ski season from December to April.