According to COUNTRYAAH, France is a State of Western Europe (543,965 km²). Capital: Paris. Administrative division: regions (22). Population: 64,812,052 (2019 estimate). Language: French (official), Corsican, Breton, German, Basque, Catalan, Flemish minorities. Religion: Christians 51.1%, atheists 39.6%, Muslims 5.6%, other religions 2.9%, Jews 0.8%. Monetary unit: euro (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.911 (24th place). Borders: Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany (NE), Switzerland, Italy (E), Spain, Andorra (SW), North Sea (N), Mediterranean Sea (S), Atlantic Ocean (W), English Channel (NW). Member of: Council of Europe, EBRD, NATO, OCDE, UN, OSCE, PC, EU and WTO.
On the basis of the Constitution approved by referendum on 28 September 1958 and entered into force on 4 October of the same year, the French Republic is a unitary republic of a presidential type. Head of State is the President of the Republic. According to the 1958 Constitution (amended several times) he is elected by universal and direct suffrage and remains in office for a period of 5 years (based on the referendum of 26 September 2000). The president is also head of the executive power, appoints the prime minister and, upon his proposal, the representatives of the other ministries. However, the system is semi-presidential: the government, in fact, must have the confidence of Parliament, which can influence, with its majority, the appointment and the program of the prime minister. This system has led several times to the “cohabitation” of a President of the Republic and a Prime Minister, expressions of different political majorities. Legislative power is exercised by the Parliament, which is composed of the National Assembly (whose 555 members are elected by universal and direct suffrage for 5 years) and by the Senate (whose 321 members are elected by indirect suffrage for 9 years and are renewed for a third every 3 years). The Constitutional Council, composed of 9 members, appointed for 9 years by the President of the Republic and the presidents of the Chamber and Senate, as well as any life members appointed by the President of the Republic, protects the constitutional guarantee of the laws and the regularity of the elections. As one of countries with F according to COUNTRYAAH, France is divided into 96 departments grouped into 22 regions, one of which, la Corsica, autonomous; the country also includes 10 overseas departments and territories: 4 departments (French Guayana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion); 2 territorial communities (Mayotte, Saint-Pierre et Miquelon); 4 territories (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Southern and Antarctic Lands, Wallis and Futuna). The President of the Republic is also the supreme head of the armed forces, which include 3 corps (army, navy and air force) plus the Gendarmerie, a military police body with public order functions. Since November 2001, the armed forces are completely professional, and include a female component equal to 7% of the total. The judicial system is based on the Napoleonic code system. In 1994 a new penal code replaced that of 1810. As regards education, France is divided into 25 school districts (the Academies), which oversee primary, secondary and higher education in their respective areas of competence. Education is compulsory and given free of charge between 6 and 16 years of age (5 years of primary education and 4 of secondary). In March 2004, the law on secularism came into force, which prohibits the display of religious symbols in public schools. University education has three levels: the Diplôme d’études universitaires, the License, the Maîtrise.
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Optimal travel time for the regions
In the following overview you can see the best travel time depending on the region (France).
|Place||Best travel time|
|Paris||May, June, July and August|
|Bordeaux||May, June, July and August|
|Brest||June, July, August, September and October|
|Nice||June, July, August and September|
|Ajaccio||June, July, August and September|
|Saint Tropez||June, July, August and September|
Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine in Paris (France)
|Daytime temperature||7 ° C||8 ° C||12 ° C||15 ° C||19 ° C||22 ° C||24 ° C||25 ° C||21 ° C||16 ° C||10 ° C||8 ° C|
|Night temperature||3 ° C||3 ° C||5 ° C||7 ° C||11 ° C||13 ° C||16 ° C||15 ° C||13 ° C||9 ° C||5 ° C||4 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||54||44||49||53||65||55||63||43||55||60||52||59|
|Hours of sunshine||2||3||5||6||8||8||8||7||6||4||2||2|
The annual average temperature in Paris is 12.1 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (20 ° C), coldest month of January with mean values of 4.7 ° C.
Annual precipitation is 649 mm on 112 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. In the months of January, February and December snowfall is possible.
As our climate table shows, June is the sunniest month with an average of 8.1 hours of sunshine per day. On average over the year the sun shines an average of 5 hours a day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following larger towns are nearby and have a similar climate: Cergy-Pontoise, Boulogne-Billancourt, Saint-Denis, Montreuil and Argenteuil.