According to COUNTRYAAH, Egypt is a State of Northeast Africa (1,001,449 km²). Capital: Cairo. Administrative division: governorates (27). Population: 97.147.368 residents (2018 estimate). Language: Arabic (official), French, English. Religion: Sunni Muslims 94.9%, Coptic Orthodox 4.6%, others 0.5%. Monetary unit: Egyptian pound (100 piastres). Human Development Index: 0.696 (115th place). Borders: Mediterranean Sea (N), Israel (NE), Red Sea (E), Sudan (S), Libya (W). Member of: COMESA, EBRD, Arab League, OCI, UN, AU and WTO, EU associate.
Former British protectorate, Egypt has been independent since 1922. According to the Constitution of 11 September 1971, amended several times, the country is an “Arab Republic with a democratic socialist system”. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for 6 years and can be re-elected several times, he exercises executive power. The bicameral parliament is composed of the People’s Assembly, whose members are elected every 5 years (at least 50% of them must be made up of peasants and workers), and the Advisory Council. The judicial system in use in the country combines elements of the Common Law English, the Napoleonic codes and the Koranic law. The Egyptian courts are divided into jurisdictional courts, which include district courts, courts of first instance, appeal courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation and the Supreme Constitutional Court, which have jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters; and administrative courts, at the top of which is the High Administrative Court. Since 1984 the Supreme Council of the Judiciary has been restored with the task of ensuring the independence of the judiciary. The death penalty is in effect. The armed forces are divided into the three traditional weapons, army, navy and air force, to these must be added two paramilitary organizations, the security forces and the national guard. Military service is carried out on a selective basis and lasts for 3 years. The modern system of Egyptian education, despite the numerous difficulties due to the lack of teaching staff and the lack of social structure, begins in the second half of the century. XIX. Primary school, compulsory and free, goes from 6 to 11 years of age. The secondary school lasts 6 years and includes two cycles of 3 years each, the first with mainly practical purposes, concludes compulsory education, the second, which leads to the university, is divided into three addresses: technical, scientific or humanistic. Vocational education has had a strong development to make up for the shortage in the country of technicians and skilled workers. According to government data, in 2017 the percentage of illiterate people was 28.8%. In Egypt, as one of countries with E according to COUNTRYAAH, higher education is given in numerous universities including Ain Shams University (Cairo, 1950), Alexandria (1942), Asyût (1957) and Cairo (1908); then there are the American University of Cairo (1919) and that of al-Azhar (Cairo, 970, modernized and developed in 1961), the latter constituting the main center of religious culture in the Muslim countries of Africa and of Asia. In 1972 the universities of Tanta and El-Mansûra were founded and in 1974 that of Zagazig.
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Optimal travel time for the regions
In the following overview you can see the best travel time depending on the region (Egypt).
|Place||Best travel time|
|Cairo||April, May, September, October and November|
|Alexandria||all except January, February, March and December|
|Luxor||March, April, May, October and November|
|Hurghada||all except January, February, March and December|
|El Gouna||April, May, June, September, October and November|
|Marsa Alam||April, May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Sharm El Sheikh||April, May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Sahl Hasheesh||April, May, June, July, August, September and October|
|Marsa Matrouh||June, July, August, September and October|
|Ras Abu Soma||all except January, February, March and December|
Temperatures, precipitation, sunshine in Cairo (Egypt)
|Daytime temperature||19 ° C||21 ° C||23 ° C||28 ° C||32 ° C||34 ° C||34 ° C||34 ° C||33 ° C||30 ° C||25 ° C||20 ° C|
|Night temperature||9 ° C||10 ° C||12 ° C||15 ° C||18 ° C||20 ° C||22 ° C||22 ° C||20 ° C||18 ° C||14 ° C||10 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||7||4||4||2||0||0||0||0||0||1||3||5|
|Hours of sunshine||7||8||9||9||10||12||11||11||9||9||8||6|
The annual average temperature in Cairo is 21.4 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (27.6 ° C), coldest month of January with mean values of 13.6 ° C.
The annual precipitation is 26 mm on 3 days with precipitation. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. You cannot expect snow in any month in Cairo.
As our climate table shows, June is the sunniest month with an average of 11.9 hours of sunshine per day. On average over the year the sun shines 9.2 hours per day. For comparison: In Munich and Berlin, the sun shines an average of 4.7 hours per day throughout the year.
The following larger places are nearby and have a similar climate: Giza, Shubra al-Khaima, Helwan, Al-Matariyya, New Cairo, Banha, Al Ḩawāmidīyah, Musṭurud, Qalyub and Ashmoun.