“Cameroon appears like a crossroads where the whole black continent seems to meet: the Africa of the rainforest and that of the savannah; the Africa of the Bantu and Sudan peoples; the Africa of the Muslims, the Christians and the animists; that French-speaking, English-speaking, even Arabic-speaking Africa. ” (Jean-Claude Bruneau, French geographer).
With around 475,000 km², the territory of the Republic of Cameroon is one third larger than that of the Federal Republic of Germany. According to COUNTRYAAH, it extends between 2 ° and 13 ° north of the equator from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad, which corresponds to a distance of over 1200 km. The largest east-west extension is approx. 800 km. Cameroon has access to the sea via its 400 km long coastline along the Bay of Bonny (formerly Bay of Biafra), which is part of the Gulf of Guinea.
The neighboring country with the longest common border is Nigeria, followed by Chad, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
As in many African countries, the national borders changed, especially in the course of colonial history. However, there are also recent examples of border corrections, such as the recent ” border adjustments ” between Nigeria and Cameroon as a result of the Bakassi conflict, particularly in the Lake Chad region.
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Cameroon’s climate is tropical, with proportions of equatorial and tropical alternating climates (climate classification according to Neef), plus the altitude levels that reach up to the alpine level on the Cameroon Mountain.
A more differentiated climate classification (according to Koeppen) results in an area for Cameroon that ranges from the ever-humid tropical rainforest climate in the south (Douala) with a dry season of 0-2 months, to a summer-humid savanna climate in the center (Yaoundé) with a dry season of 3-5 months to the tropical dry savanna climate in the north (Ngaoundéré, Garoua) with a dry season of 5-8 months.
In addition, there are extreme climatic locations such as the region west of the Cameroon Mountain, which is one of the wettest areas in the world with enormous amounts of rain of over 11,000 mm / year.
The local climatic conditions depend on the geographical latitude, the distance to the sea and the altitude.
The ever-humid tropics with tropical rainforests, the alternately humid tropics with moist savannah and dry savannah and the tropical dry areas with thorn savannah are represented as eco-zones.