According to COUNTRYAAH, The country extends into the Valira river basin (a tributary of the Segre, the largest Pyrenean tributary of the Ebro) and finds its geographical reasons as a territorial unit in the fragmentation of the Pyrenean region, which is characterized by closed transverse valleys, with elevated watersheds and difficult to pass, therefore favorable to the establishment of isolated mountain communities, born as fortifications in a defensive position.
In this sense Andorra offers a classic example of mountain life in its most ancient and original expressions. The country is easily accessible from Spain, less from France, from which it is divided by the Envalira pass, 2,409 meters high, which opens into one of the highest sections of the Pyrenean chain., dominated by peaks that reach 3000 m asl, such as Pic de Serrère (2911 m) and Coma Pedrosa (2946 m), the largest relief in the region. The hydrographic network of the country consists of the numerous streams that flow into the Valira river. The lower limit of the territory is located approx. 1000 m, where the Gran Valira valley begins to widen. The climate, given the altitude, is everywhere markedly mountainous, rainy (over 1500 mm of annual rainfall), with considerable seasonal temperature variations, also determined by the variety of influences to which the valley, open towards the south, is subject. Pine and fir woods cover the valley slopes, giving way higher up to beautiful prairies; pastures and forests therefore represent the dominant element of the territory. The main environmental problems of the region are given by deforestation; the air and water show signs of pollution. § The demographic variations in the past have never been noticeable, since emigration balanced the natural increase. But in the last decades of the century. XX the opportunities offered by tourism and those related to the status of customs free zone (income taxation is not practiced) have stimulated a significant increase in the population, due to immigration from neighboring countries (38.1% of the population is made up of Andorran by birth, the rest of the country is inhabited by Spaniards 31.7%, French 6.1%, Portuguese 15.9%), with a change from ca. 6000 residents from the fifties to the 67,000 of 2003. This was followed, also due to speculation, by a decent building development. The Andorrans, many of whom are dedicated to typical mountain activities, agriculture and livestock breeding are concentrated in the main cities of Andorra la Vella and Les Escaldes, or in small nuclei (some composed of only a few dozen people) located on the valley floor. The capital rises in the Valira valley; its urban aspect has been profoundly modified by the commercial and building development of the last fifty years. It has in fact remained a small historic district (Barri Antic), consisting of stone houses and cobbled streets arranged around the sixteenth-century Casa de la Vall, the ancient seat of the town; while the rest of the city is made up of buildings, hotels, shops and tourist facilities.
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|Daytime temperature||6 ° C||7 ° C||10 ° C||12 ° C||16 ° C||20 ° C||23 ° C||23 ° C||20 ° C||15 ° C||10 ° C||6 ° C|
|Night temperature||-1 ° C||-1 ° C||1 ° C||3 ° C||7 ° C||10 ° C||13 ° C||13 ° C||11 ° C||7 ° C||2 ° C||0 ° C|
|Precipitation in mm||51||54||66||74||102||101||65||89||83||74||72||68|
The average annual temperature is 9.6 ° C. For comparison: Munich reaches an average of 8.6 ° C, in Berlin it is 9.6 ° C. The warmest month is July (18.1 ° C), coldest month of January with mean values of 2.3 ° C.
The annual precipitation is 899 mm. For comparison: In Munich, 967 mm, in Berlin 570 mm, precipitation is measured annually. There is no rainy season, i.e. months with more than 175 mm of precipitation. In the months of January, February, March, April, November and December snowfall is possible.